Oh my Satoshi
→ February 2021
in progress ...
1. The Traveling Salesman Problem and the Transaction DAG
Published by Theory of Bitcoin, 1 Mar 2021
Bitcoin Class is taught by Dr. Craig S. Wright who created Bitcoin under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto. Students are Ryan X. Charles (founder of Coasian) and Xiaohui Liu (founder of sCrypt).
"This destroys the RSA crypto system."
- be world famous cryptographer
- retire in 2011 after helping create the RSA foundation
- publish updates ever 2 years on efforts to destroy Discrete Logarithm Problem / RSA
- label each update "work in progress"
- post a final update on March 3, 2021 at age 77 removing "work in progress" from title and adding a single line to the end of the abstract:
"This destroys the RSA crypto system."
Some cryptography libraries that provide support for RSA include:
- Bouncy Castle
- mbed TLS
Patrick Thompson: Everyone can play a role in the Gorilla DAO
Interview, 3 March 2021
During Bitcoin SV’s (BSV) recent token explosion a new Twetch account appeared announcing the Gorilla Decentralized Autonomous Organization. The account already has over 130 followers only 5 days after creation and 100 members in its DAO. To become a member with voting power, one can /pay the account at least $1 or buy tokens via the quickly launched transaction page.
I am happy for the opportunity to conduct a written interview with the founder and community manager of the Gorilla DAO, CoinGeek’s very own Patrick Thompson.
What was your motivation for launching the Gorilla DAO?
What inspired me to launch the DAO was that I wanted to push the boundaries of BSV.
The Bitcoin community is always saying, “Oh, Bitcoin SV can do everything Ethereum can do but better,” but we do not have much to show for it really. So, I figured that it was time to make that a reality and launch a DAO—a concept that originated on Ethereum—but to do it better on BSV.”
What role did the recent ability to create tokens play in forming the DAO?
Tokens play a critical role in the Gorilla DAO. For starters, owning the Ape Token gives you membership and voting rights in the Gorilla DAO, so the Ape Token acted as the launchpad to the DAO being profitable from day one—which it was.
There are a ton of innovative things you can do on token protocols like RUN, which you will see the Gorilla DAO doing in the very near future, but none of it would have been possible without the ability to create tokens to begin with.
The Short versus the Long Term?
Published by Craig Wright on 03 Mar 2021
All positive social change comes at a cost.
Many executives of current organisations attempt to argue that the very reason for their existence is to create profit (Friedman, 1970/2007). But, if corporations merely existed to make a profit, any firm that is not making the best rate of return for their industry, but the economy as a whole, should stop running. For instance, if the returns on financial shares come in at 7 per cent and your organisation is making a profit of 3 per cent, the argument that profit is all that matters would dictate that you shut down the company and reinvest the funds. Clearly, doing so is not in the interest of society, nor those running the company. The people who found companies do so under the expectation of returns knowing that there is a chance of losing money. As such, it is clear that companies are formed not only to make a profit, but for other purposes.
Businesses are tasked with making a profit, and will not exist if they fail to do so. But, no activity is ever solely directed at a single outcome. Although Friedman (1970) argued that the social responsibility of a business is to make money and nothing more, the argument can be seen to ring hollow. For a start, the doctrine Friedman promoted led to short-term profits at the expense of the firm. Many corporations that had been around for decades found themselves being attacked internally, by their management seeking to promote quick returns for shareholders. It led to researchers such as Steward (1992) referring to Wall Street as nothing more than a den of thieves. In many ways, the corporate management of the 1980s was little more than such. Short-term profit can often come at the expense of long-term gains.
For instance, a car manufacturer does not exist merely to make a profit, but to provide clients with a form of transport. An example I will start with would be the case of Tesla. The company started with the concept of creating an electric vehicle. The purpose being promoted by the founder and others in the firm is to deliver a form of transportation that does not require the use of fossil fuels. There are some negatives to it, with many of the inputs to lithium batteries being obtained from conflict zones and being toxic (such as cobalt), but the aims of the founders in creating social change are evident.
Seeking change does not mean that change should occur. What is a positive social change to one individual will cause aversion in another. The views of those in the business may or may not align with the views of wider societies. Where they do not align, things are not naturally hostile. All positive changes come from the actions of a few individuals that go against the decisions of the status quo and the many.
Digital Rights and Ownership Royalties on Bitcoin
Published by Bitcoin Association on Feb 2, 2020
Aaron Burns, the Chief Financial Officer of Twetch, discusses how their company is changing the digital rights ownership landscape and ensuring that content creators will rightfully get their due. The presentation was made during the Twetch Bitcoin SV Meetup in Berlin, Germany in 2019.
4 March 2021
The security of RSA relies on the practical difficulty of factoring the product of two large prime numbers. This takes exponentially longer as the bitsize increases. This method reduces it to polynomial time so instead of (2^800)/2 brute force operations you can now break RSA 800 bit keys is roughly 7x10^10 operations, or 70 Billion. Given a desktop computer with a decent GPU could do that in a couple hours, it's fair to say RSA encryption is functionally dead.
How this applies to Bitcoin is a bit of a stretch but it's there. Finding P given Q on an elliptic curve shares the same computational complexity as the factoring problem. The DLP is just a special case of the Factoring Problem. So the same lattice based methods they used to destroy RSA will shortly be applied to ECC, and before you know it cypherpunks will be emptying the hotwallets of all the big crypto exchanges.
Bitcoin died today. Or at the very least it was diagnosed with a terminal illness.
mining actual uses sha256(inside sha256) to hash the merkle root of a bitcoin block. If the output has sufficient leading 0s in its bits, it beats the Difficulty requirement and the block is mined. Since sha256 is a straightforward deterministic hash, when run against the merkle root it will always produce the same result. 50% of the time that result will begin with 1 "0" because the bits can be only 1 or 0. 25% it will begin with 00, and then it gets exponentially harder as the Difficulty increases. What Bitcoin mining does is let you add a small bit of random data (called a nonce) into your sha256 hash to change the output. If Difficulty were 32 for example your Sha hash output would need to start with 32 leading zeros. The odds of any random hash output having that value would be 1/2^32 or about 1 in 4 Billion... when people say mining bitcoin what they really mean is "trying different random nonces in the hopes that the resulting hash begins with enough zeroes".
Unravelling that problem is damn near impossible.
What these PKI attacks break are THE WALLETS that hold coins. Not the mining that generates them.
Ethereum and almost every other cryorocurrency use DLP based encryption for their wallets. The only currency I am aware of that does not is Mochimo. It uses hash-based signatures for which there are no known attack vectors.
Not a shill. I'm very pro-crypto. BTC and every other system based on ECC are in grave danger. These lattice methods are a hop skip and a jump away from being used to unravel DLP problems. It took from 2016 until 2021 for them to crack RSA once the attack vector was understood. It'll take then much less than that to crack ECC. Fortunately for most people, Public keys are not exposed on the blockchain until spent. The people who will be fucked are people operating live hit wallets with exposed public keys (like crypto exchanges). Before long all trading will grind to a halt due to the ridiculous measures they'll need to take to protect their public keys.
BTC needs a DSA algorithm update NOW. Or it's fucking over.
This paper was finalized TODAY, with proof provided of a solution test case solved in Polynomial time. Read the paper if you can grok it. Google the author if you can't. Why would a renowned cryptographer pronounce time of death on one of his own inventions?
I wouldn't sell based on this news personally. Cracking RSA just proves the effectiveness of these lattice-based approaches. ECC is also being tested and likely will fall right behind RSA. I think there's time to fix Bitcoin to use a non-DLP based DSA, so hold onto your coins.
He proved he can crack RSA with lattice based methods, reducing them to P some of the time and getting them pretty damn close all of the time. These lattice based methods can be viewed almost like a multidimensional binary sort. Sometimes you just guess wrong and have to try the other chain. So there's an element of chance that keeps it from being purely P.
SSL is the most important victim of this paper. Read the whole thread. I think I've explained the implications, but in summary: Lattice-based approaches to factoring the product of two large primes have been a candidate for cracking RSA since 2013. In 2016 they got a shot in the arm when a grad student figured out a way to put them into practice. Over the next five years under Schnorr's direction they dialed in the algorithms to get the RSA cracking down to at or near polynomial time in every test case up